First, the interest in formal political theory, with a strong emphasis on debating the merits of different constitutional structures and assuming that government forms could be planned, obviously reflected the distinctive political atmosphere of Greece.
Like all philosophers, Plato and Aristotle theorised in a specific social and historical context and the issues and controversies and conceptions of their time and place enter into their thought.
And Athens was the most urban of the city-states. For example, each column is slightly wider in the middle than at its base and top. Nevertheless, Ober's observation rings true of the historical significance of Aristotle's political thought.
Most Greek sculpture was of the freestanding, human form even if the statue was of a god and many sculptures were nudes. However, three causes are fairly consistent among the ancient historians, namely Thucydides and Plutarch.
So pottery was used. Stories of the gods' activities provided rich entertainment and could drive home lessons about appropriate moral behavior, including courage and humility. Respect for property is a keystone of Cicero's political thought, here very far from the Platonism which subordinated property to civic harmony.
Whereas the modern state is merely a piece of institutional machinery for the protection and utility of private individuals, maintaining a neutrality between 13 Dr Peter Critchley The Ideal of Polis Democracy competing perspectives of the good, the polis possessed a positive function in realising a notion of the common human good.
In architecture, change was more limited, but there was a tendency to move toward more elaborate decorative motifs over time.
An outbreak of plague in the city during the siege caused heavy losses, including Pericles. It followed too that just as Plato denied the title of a single unified regime to the imperfect regimes torn by civil discord, so Cicero inferred that corrupt regimes were not strictly speaking res publicae at all III.
Depending upon where one placed the stress, nature could be as inegalitarian as egalitarian. Photograph courtesy of www.
The question of why the individual should be just, figured at the outset by the contrast with the putatively happy tyrant, is resolved eventually by demonstrating that the tyrant is at once maximally unjust and maximally unhappy. The characteristic Greek religion was a rather primitive affair, derived from animist belief in the spirits of nature elevated into a complex set of gods and goddesses who were seen as interfering in human life.
Whilst many citizens lived near the agora, most Athenians lived scattered over the countryside and came to urban centre only to do political, religious or other business. The meaning of this clause and its relevance to civil disobedience is again much debated Kraut remains a landmark.
But the lesson Aristotle draws from this limits the role of the many to that of judging and electing to offices rather than to serving themselves in offices III. Every Greek knew the polis: This distinction makes it possible to separate public life from the institutional machinery of the state and locate it in an autonomous self-governing urban realm.
Plato and Aristotle May have bequeathed a biased interpretation of the Sophist movement to history, but the points on which they target Sophist doctrine are the key ones. Aristotle in opposition to Athenian democracy in his day Ober This is not to say that they did not also have ordinary political intentions, but rather to stress that the invention of political philosophy was also intended as a mode of reflection upon the value of ordinary political life.
It was not, however, intensely spiritual. This is encouraged by the definition of the polis as a city-state and the conception of the city as an urban environment. That arguably goes too far in a proceduralist direction, given that the value of law remains its embodiment of reason or understanding nousso that while adding persuasive preludes is a better way to exercise the coercive force of law, no agreement on the basis of persuasion could justify laws which departed from the standard of nous.
The value which had been created and given expression at the level of social practice was given the weight of reason. Detroit Institute of Arts: Whether the Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian style was used depended on the region and the purpose of the structure being built.
The result bore some similarities to Chinese Confucianism, though with greater emphasis on skeptical questioning and abstract speculations about the basic nature of humanity and the universe.
Given the relativism of Sophist thinking, it is difficult to give a clear and concise definition of Sophist freedom, particularly when one adds the culture-nature distinction. An originally republican formula relating the consuls to the people as the source of authoritative law survives in a complete prescript of the Augustan period: Similar casuistry enables Cicero to resolve in accordance with his thesis a range of common cases where advantage might be sought at the expense of justice in administering the estate of an orphan, for example, a common duty of eminent Romans.
The attempt to establish its philosophical status could and did result in a value that originated in popular struggle coming to be placed in the service of the ruling class. With the decline of the city-states, however, and the rise of more general Hellenistic forms in which community art played a lesser role, the cultural gaps stood out in sharper relief.
An accidental explosion left the Parthenon with no roof and in near ruin.In what ways did Athenian culture, philosophy, and art reflect democratic ideals? "Power of the people" - All free citizens were aloud to take part in public decisions.
Helped citizens to broaden minds - cultural awareness and development. Oct 18, · The Athenian state also sponsored learning and the arts, particularly architecture.
Athens became the centre of Greek literature, philosophy (see Greek philosophy) and the arts (see Greek Status: Resolved.
2 Dr Peter Critchley The Ideal of Polis Democracy Throughout the centuries, Athens functioned as the ideal model of civic freedom and democracy. This model is a very idealised portrayal of Athens at a certain time.
The which was dominant in ancient Athens was one of aristocratic freedom. Five Things That Ancient Greece Has Contributed to Modern Culture Ancient Greece is not just ancient history. The legacy of this classical culture has had a significant influence on culture today, from athletic spectacles such as the Olympics to the storytelling structure of Hollywood films.
I basically have a short essay question asking about how Athenian art/philosophy/culture reflected their democratic ideals.
I am struggling. If someone could help explain it to me or point me in the direction of some good articles or websites about this topic, I would really appreciate it.
In what ways did Athenian culture, philosophy, and art reflect democratic ideals? "Power of the people" - All free citizens were aloud to take part in public decisions.
Helped citizens to broaden minds - cultural awareness and development.Download